SNYGRO… a 3D Rapid prototype printing

Last updated on : May 25,  2011


Because of the overwhelming responce on our Research and Development on the SNYGRO  ,the main page  got really big and cumbersome to work with. For future development we will devided the main page into four sub pages , Also this day(may 25 , 2011) Is probably the last day We will post to this page.The growth and interest in the snygro is so huge we were forced to start a dedicated website  called:   

   As from now, may 25 , 2011 Our USA  and Canadian branch will cunduct business  under the name   ChemShapes.  Chemshapes is short for various chemical and 3d-shape  projection forming  in the rapid prototype industry.  

1-The hardware

2-The Electronics 

3-The Interface software

4-Formulations, for resin wax and rubber.

5-Projectors and optics

Please make posts , blogs and comments to our new website .  We will gradually  seperate and transfer the info here to our new website. Its great to have you all on board  and thank you very much  for all your support and input so far.

Tj  and Roberto


The 3 dimensional rapid prototype printer  

Illustration 1.Basic workings of a rapid prototype printer that use digital light projection to cure ultra violet sensitive resin (layer by layer) to form a model.


This Page will be  dedicated to a project that I have started in another forum   3DCADJEWELRY.COM in 2010  . It is an open source project, meaning anyone can partipate  in  the development  to be benifisial for all.

So what is a rapid prototype light projection  printer/grower  and how does it work?

The purpose of it is to rapidly ( a few hours)fabricate/grow  an exact replica of a 3 dimensional computer aided design drawing(CAD). It is normally a conceptual or working  model for the industry. Scientists ,architects,dentist ,jewelelers etc. make very good use of it and for the first time this will now be available to the hobbiest,the D.I.Y’s  and tinkerers . Any type of model can be build with it with no limitations to undercuts ,hollow structures or curvature. It builds a model in a 3 dimensional  hard durable  solid layered  format in resin ,rubber or wax. (now other materials also became available). The model is build upside down with the base attached to the hatced blue platform.

The software interface (see link below) starts  the process by slicing a 3d CAD drawing into thousands of horizontal sliced layers and generate a photo image for each  cross section in a seqential order. For example if the model was a sphere ,the images would start as a small tiny round white dot on the bottom and grow sequentially bigger per layer until it gets to the center  slice(the biggest) .Then it will get smaller again (per layer) as it goes to the top of the sphere. . The last sliced image wil be small again.  Each image is used to seqentially build  a one layered cross section at a time. Each layer is formed by hardening  a layer of resin by the printer  as decribed below:

Refer to the above illustration #1 : A Light curing resin  (usually Ultra violet(UV)  sensitive) is poured into a shallow  square vat/container (shown in blue color).The bottom of the vat is made of clear glass (shown in grey color).  A building platform  (lshown in light blue hatched) is lowered into the liquid resin until it almost touches the bottom glass (hairline space). A projector projects the first image sliced (cross section #1)  of the 3d CAD drawing in white light (or uv) through the glass onto the building platform surface for about 8 seconds. As the thin sandwiched layer of resin between between the glass and the building surface recieves  the light, it cures to a plastic consistency(polymerize). This first layer is importand ,It forms the base of our model wich is now glued to the building platform surface. The printer  stops projecting and  let the computer know to move the platform up another hair thickness (0.01mm) .The printer calls for the next image and projects the next layered image.The process repeats itself over many thousands of times with a new image every time…….. Layer after layer the model is build up ( like a thick stack of paper)  to form the solid model.

This process continous until the whole model (orange) is extruded from the resin vat.The model is build upside down, as it extrudes from the base first.

A highly  detailed model (high resolution) of 2 inches high (50mm) usually consist of thousands of layers. Needless to say that the whole process is  computer controlled and can take up many hours to build a small 2 inch model.


This project will be based on a digital light projector solidifying a photo sensitive wax/resin  layer on a growthplate (as described above.).  There are various comercial printers like this out there (see list below) , But what makes our printer stand out from the rest is the fact that it is MODULAR. Meaning ,in just one printer you can have much  more versatility and choice in building platform size and height .

This MODULAR aproach will allow the resin vat to be raised or lowered for bigger or smaller models.

You overcome the limitations of  one small fixed growth cubic volume. One thing to keep in mind is that as you enlarge the projected area you loose some resolution and the outline is not as crisp as a small area . The quality of the resolution will be relative to the size of your model.

The main reason for this aproach is versatility.Now one printer can cover a much wider field of interest in the industry, from the jewelers that makes a small 1″ rings to a sculptor that makes  18″ sculptures.


The following posts  was transfered from  3DCADJEWELRY.COM:(The first few were just cut and pasted from there ,thats why it is in all kinds of text formats)

Posted Feb 21 2011

So here is what I have got so far ,gathered from my research:
The projector is no problem you can pic up 1080 XGA,high lumens and contrast now for less than a 1000 Us bucks.
the machine A piece of cake,10x easier than a mill guys. Imagin NO TRAMMING!!!!!
The problem I have now is formulating the wax and curetime.I am working with a few companies to solve that will post that info soon ,any help in regards to that would be great.The software I am really going to need help on.I want to base this one on USB protocol.

So there it is all in a nutshell and a lot of food for thought.

I am going to use this first post to post all the links in this thread so it is easier to come by.


Chemical suppliers and info/tutorial:…d=47&Itemid=54


RADCURE ENERGY CURABLE RESINS From cytec these guys are great and helpfull. And dilutants TMPTA for ADDITOL and EBECRYLS…EBECRYL UV-curable resins and oligomers
UCECOAT  waterborne UV-curable resins
ADDITOL  photoinitiators and additives
RAYLOK  UV-curable resins
UVEKOL  Glass laminating system


IRGACURE SPECS from CIBA- Whatever light source you use must match up with the photoinitiator absorbance peaks. Irgacure 819 has peaks at 295 nm and 370 nm:

ADDITOL  photoinitiators and additives

Resin recipes

Extract the info for youself  IMPORTANT!!! We take absolutely no responsibility for any outcome of these formulations and some might even be hazardous, so get the necessary literature before you concoct anything. Polymers are nasty,use nitrile gloves and  goggles.

Recipe 1   This was used  by Prof. Nicholas Fang (University of Illinois)

All 3 of these can all be purchased for about $130(US)  on may 2011 at  SIGMA-ALDRICH

1)  98 ml Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate CAS 26570-48-9 Sigma Aldrich # 437441

2)  2 grams of  Phenylbis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (Irgacure 819) CAS 162881-26-7 Sigma Aldrich #511447

3) 0.02 grams of  Sudan 1(one) (also known as …1-Phenylazo-2-naphthol…) CAS 842-07-9 Sigma Aldrich # 103624…thats it for recipe 1

FACTS ABOUT SUDAN 1……….Sudan is a artificial food color mostly banned in the food industry in the us , Both the artificial colors known as Yellow 5 (Tartrazine) and Yellow 6 (Sunset Yellow FCF) are azo compounds. Essentially they are sulfonated versions of Sudan 1,   Yellow 6  are used in medicine etc. for its color.

Why is it used here?…It’s to block the UV to penetrate too deep into the resin.thats it.I’ll explain more in FABRICATION TECHNIQUES. Later.

Directions:  also see this video…_printing_full

The solution requires several days to dissolve – make at least 3 days before use, longer is better.
Solution should be stored in an amber bottle.
Solution will store for at least a year with no degradation.

Several people have asked what lens we use. We use a Plano-Convex Lens 50.0mm Dia. x 150.0mm focal length, MgF2 Coating that we get from Edmund Optics, NT32-975. This is just the lens, if you want a holder as well; we use their holder M54-986 with a mounting post M54-940.


Recipe 2 Wax For the jewelry industry

This is the one that TJ  is formulating for wax and rubber, and still working on.I am gonna use “ADDITOL TPO” ( A fine powder), from CYTEC.…flyer_apcs.pdf Because I am not going to resin polymerize  with the HDDA .I have to use a wax in a carrier monomer type liquid to form the chain bonds. known as
TRPGDA (Tripropylene glycol diacrylate) from SHAMROCK TECHNOLOGIES inc.  in their “everglide range of products” UV-691 , UV-636 , UV-600D , UV-395D…s_coatings.pdf Also can use TRPGDA, DPGDA, or PEG(400-1600)DA  or  Ebercryl 3211.  Irgacure 819 is a pretty good choice. And for solubility problems with the photoinitiators, try TPO-L (Ethyl – 2,4,6 – Trimethylbenzoylphenylphosphinate which is a yellow liquid TPO). You should just be able to stir it in.  and  the light source you use must match up with the photoinitiator absorbance peak spectrum wavelength.  From what I could gather is that the photoinitiator that gets activated closer to the visible light spectrum  400nm is more expensive,(I might be wrong ,but the prices sure proof me right)


Materials (Aluminum ,UV Plastic sheets, fasteners etc. )supliers:

Misc/v-groove bearings/guides etc/worms
v-groove bearings and other linear guides BEST PRICES!! Up to ABEC 7’s
Interface circuit

Stepper drivers:

USB > HDMI 1920 X 1080 Adapter link is probably short lived.!


Slice generators:

We are currently developing our own software interface  I will post
the link here soon. It will ,like everything else be opensourced for all to take part.…on-3d-printer/

Stereo lithography:


Similar Comercial printers out there:…d=47&Itemid=54…d=47&Itemid=54…apid+Prototype

Related misc. Links

a Post I did on Feb 17 2011 about the aberation assues:

In optics, a collimator is an optical device that generates a parallel beam of light[1] and may consist of a curved mirror or lens with some type of light source and/or an image at its focus. This can be used to replicate a target at infinity without parallax. Optical collimators can be used to calibrate other optical devices[2], to check if all elements are aligned on the optical axis, to set elements at proper focus, or to align two or more devices such as binoculars and gun barrels/gunsights.[3] A surveying camera may be collimated by setting its fiduciary markers so that they define the principal point, as in photogrammetry

Posted on Feb 18 2011

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION on the resin (the secret no one wants you to know)…docs/guide.pdf

I’ve been on the Phone all week to gather chemical info from these chemist’s,Most of them are way too smart ,and the very essence of their whole being sits in all in their brain,Most of them have no people skill and comunication skills at all.Nonetheless Two companies was very helpfull. CYTEC and SHAMROCK TECHNOLOGIES inc..So keep them in mind when you buy chemicals. The link that I have posted I found a way back is based on a resin composition I am no chemichal buff at all but this is what I could gather so far on the composition.

 WIKI …LINK  …on the physics of colored light







UV / visible light (400 nm right at the edge between UV and visible) from the projector produce light to
initiate a photochemical reaction by cleaving a molecule to form free radicals
Wiki on radicals
Radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons on an open shell configuration. Free radicals may have positive, negative or zero charge. Even though they have unpaired electrons, by convention, metals and their ions or complexes with unpaired electrons are not radicals. [1] With some exceptions, the unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive. Radicals, if allowed to run free in the body, are believed to be involved in degenerative diseases and cancers.

Free radicals play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, polymerization, plasma chemistry, biochemistry, and many other chemical processes. In chemical biology, superoxide and nitric oxide regulate many processes, such as controlling vascular tone. Such radicals can even be messengers in a phenomenon dubbed redox signaling. A radical may be trapped within a solvent cage or be otherwise bound.

What they used for the resin:?

The free radicals will polymerize a monomer through an addition
polymerization reaction. It will polymerize the solution, becoming solid, only where the white light is
projected. It will remain an unreacted liquid elsewhere.
The photosensitive monomer (1,6 – Hexanediol Diacrylate or HDDA)
works under the process of addition polymerization. The photoinitator
(Irgacure 819) absorbs UV-wavelength photons and produces free
radicals. These free radicals react with the monomers (HDDA) to
cause chain propagation, polymerizing the monomer. This chain
propagation terminates when two chains react with each other.
Successive layers are made by lowering the polymerized shape into a
beaker of the solution. A thin layer of fresh solution flows over the top
and light is again projected to solidify portions of the fresh layer. This is
repeated, creating a 3 dimensional object layer by layer.
Here is may take from what I could gather from this week of research.
And any help in regards to this would be geatly apreciated.

trimethylbenzoyl diphenyl phosphinoxide)

They used “Irgacure 819” to produce the free radicals (wich would probably work just as good for a Photoinitiator), On reccomendation I am gonna use “ADDITOL TPO” ( A solid,

from CYTEC.…flyer_apcs.pdf

Now here is where the wax comes in:
Because I am not going to resin polymerize like they did with the HDDA .I have to use a wax in a carrier monomer type liquid to form the chain bonds. known as
ripropylene glycol diacrylate) from SHAMROCK TECHNOLOGIES inc. in their “everglide range of products” UV-691 , UV-636 , UV-600D , UV-395D…s_coatings.pdf So this is where I stand now ,waiting for the chemicals to come and I am very anxious to mix. I migtht be way off, but at least it is a place to start, more to come soon. TJ.

Yes the resin does burn out but the guys told me it still leaves a residue that needs to blown out.,you need a escape vent to blow the residue out. As far as mach3:
I was thinking along that lines too,to use mach3 in 2 axis mode ,But the trouble I am having is to get it syncronised with the image display.
I find a lot of software that output PARRALEL and g-code and other programs that generate images in slices,But have nothing thus do far that does both.
The closest one is at the above post
But it puts out toolpaths,I think I should download it this weekend and play with it maybe there is image output too.

Post on This next find and post was probably a big brakethrough for me and is based on this link

One thing that is very ,very interesting to me is this:
When you look at those build videos again(the last one),they build that right side up so that the little block has 4 top beams accross with no support ???

At some point they exposed a slice to from the bottom of the beam.???? .(How far did the light penetrate??)..Huh…That is the reason most printers grow upside down….to stop the light penetration at some point.
Did any af you caught that??

I tried that freesteel /slice last for a long time but could not get it working. Looks like a good solution.

21 Feb. 2011
I just counted the x-resultion on the xy plane on some hight def waxes/resin and it came to :
100 dots per 3.77mm
Thus 673 dots per inch(25,4mm)(Wich was surprizing low to me.)
thus I my non-profesional opinion a 1900 x 1080 prjector should give a 1.6 x 2.8 inch display/grow area footprint .(with no corection or cullumation)

So this will be a startoff point to play with and plan on.
I can try and double the resolution by going half that areain the x-y plane.

I still have one variable, the Z- axis,Luckily its the variable thats the easiest to adjust so I will just have to see.

Feb 22 2011
I read this pdf                                                    …docs/guide.pdf


very caryfully this time and answered my own question.
here goes:
shown in red the answer was “Sudan I” At least 24 hours before the experiment begins, mix up the solution. Combine 98mL of 1,6 – Hexanediol Diacrylate with 2.00 grams of Irgacure 819.In order to reduce bleed through (since you are projecting light through a photosensitive material and only want to create thin layers), you must add Sudan I, a UV absorber.
For this lab, the concentration of Sudan I is low because the layers are much more than 0.4 micron thick layers used by Dr. Fang. Using an analytical balance, measure 0.0054 grams of Sudan I. Combine the Sudan I with the other two components and mix thoroughly. This solution takes approximately 24 hours to
become fully homogenous. Also this:Slide 23 (Overhanging Structures?):
The thickness of each layer is controlled by the addition of a UV light  a
bsorber. Sudan I is one such compound that works well. The more Sudan I added, the thinner the layer.
If no
UV absorber is added, the layers will be quite thick and overhanging structures will not be possible.

Posted FEB 282011

Been very, very busy on the snygro drawings this weekend.
attached it is!.you guys can disect it if you want.

It needs lotsa refinement still. But the main idea is there.
Haydon Kerk 23 nema stepper about @150 bucks with attached leadscrew and anti Backlash nut.(100mm Z Travel)

The projector is just plopped on the bottom,I don’t know the sizes of it yet, it is still on order..After I hack it I will know more about the bottom dimensions and workings of the projector.(The whole main post wil probably be shorten about 200mm I hope
The whole machine is modular.all aluminum and steel with a plastic uv cover.

Pretty simple.
The z axis slide up on 4 v-groove bearings.The building platform on a extrusion bolted to the vertical slide Z-plate.

The vat swivel on two grub cone pivots
and gets tilted with a cam lever and solenoid.Thats to break it loose from the vat floor after every cured slice.(They all say i need it I am not sure yet,but I did allow space for it.)

All the electronics will be built into the main collumn,usb interface.power supply etc.
That is pretty much all there is to it.
All in all, my guess that it would be about $500-$ 800 in
materials.(without the projector) That all depends on how much the machining is gonna be.
So hack at it and have fun…
Click image for larger version  Name:	snygro rev6.JPG Views:	6 Size:	111.9 KB ID:	6374

Then I ran into Junior Veloso’s site

Last Year I did not pay much attention to his site Because he was just at infant stage and experimenting still .

Land last last week I surfed his site again and was amazed at the progress he made in the last months I was totally impressed and please  check out his site. He also has an awesome video here:

There are  also some  software  downloadable here:

But I had no luck yet with the downloads yet,it is super slow.

Posted April 06 2011

The construction of the collumn  is so simple it’s is gonna take more work to convert any other machine than to make a new one.You can use one linear axis though.

Remember there is one major problem that we bypass with a vertical grow machine and that is HYSTERESIS/ repeatability or Backlash.
(HYSTERESIS a deficiency of returing back to its origin or coordinates.)

Once a grower starts it just keeps on trekking and does not care where its been because it never have to return.There is just TWO things to worry about,and that is:
1-to move the same vertical distance every time
2- No to rotate around the collumn (movement left to right) ,wich is much easier to controll that backlash on a mill.

Recieved my VIEWSONIC PRO 8200 (1900 x 1080) ($ 926 US) Last week but had to send it back again because it was defective,I was so disappointed.

Hope to get another one in this week.In the meantime I am getting ready to start experimenting on the wax formula.

Another idea I am working on is a continious grower with no slice file.
Almost like an analogue idea compared to digital.This will eliminate the slice lines in the models and interpolating/Anti-alias (blending the boundary) of the vertical pixels just like it does with the horisontal layered pixels.

April 8 2011

After 2 tries,(The first one was defective) my digital light projector just arrived today.

This is the description on the manual:

Viewsonic PRO8200 DLP HD Projector
The ViewSonic® Pro8200 DLP HD Projector delivers a true HD home theater entertainment experience to even the most discriminating home theater enthusiast. The Pro8200 native 16:9 widescreen aspect ratio is ideal for HDTV and movies as well as gaming. The Pro8200 combines state-of-the art DLP® and BrilliantColor™ TECHNOLOGIES with 2,000 lumens and 3000:1 contrast ratio (typ) to deliver a stunning visual experience to any home theater. The innovative seven segment color wheel provides vivid, rich colors. With multiple connectivity, including dual HDMI inputs with HDCP, lets the Pro8200 connect any DVD player, game console and more for complete home entertainment. Get ready for beautifully clear home theater entertainment with the Viewsonic PRO8200 DLP HD Projector.”

I bought this one at for  $926.00 US.

This weekend there wil be a lot of playing going on.

My aim is to hack it and replace the White light bulb unit with the right wave spectrum uv light source and a visible red llight just to see where it is projecting.

There is no need for the wavelenth spectrum 450nm to 650nm (blue,green and yellow) .It just generates unnecessary heat. I dont even know I  need the color wheel , I might just rip that out too

April 27 2011

Well there was quite a bit of action going on with the Snygro the last few weeks:

1- The most important and exciting is,  I teamed up with  a great in partner in Canada, He is extremely well educated in the 3d world of graphics. An excellent software programmer and have very good grasp and understanding for the technical side too. He has done similar technical projects with great succes and precision.   This is a very exciting move for the development of the the printer. The Canadian branch will be mainly focusing on the Software /interface development and the US branch mainly on the hardware development. Both branches will integrate and combine decades of experience and knowledge (Both in software and hardware) to bring forth one of the best and most affordable Rapid prototype modular units ever build.

Research and development have and will always be the driving force for the new formed company and will keep us on the cutting edge of technology. It will be a very  advantageous step for future development. A New company and name will be established and will be posted soon.That is about the only info I can give right now.

2-Like I said the printer also got revised.

The old 2 collumn posts was an overbuild. (projector not shown)

The old  main collumns (2 of them)  has been replaced by a one square collumn system.The stepper motor moved up to the top to eliminate resin spillage on the motor.

The new one collumn design. (projector not shown)

The front view showing the main vertical beam attached to the Z-axis baseplate ,the UV Resin vat and the pivot system.

Inside view of the Cam tilt mechanism actuated by the solenoid.

I haved also ordered smaller V-groove bearings for the Z-baseplate.And decided to build two prototype units one for Canada and one for the US Branch.

May 3 ,2011

Finshed the steppers ,coupling , leadscrews and  the anti-backlash nuts I turned fron carbon impregnated nylon as seen in the picture

The steppers for one printer each.

Here is a schematic of the  solenoid tilt mechanism. I have to slow-down to the solenoid so I dont get pull and release and spill the resin out of the vat. I think I will add a micro pneumatic air release hole in the center cylinder for that.

Tilt mechanism for the Resin vat.

Got the new rails and v-groove bearings in today. The collumn are almost build.

Totay I got the li’l polulu stepper drivers in .How nice.

Hope they work cause I am tired of building driver boards from scratch . You cant beat the price…$20 us.

I also got in the Arduino USB , mega 2560 Multi I/O Board,  just as nicely made . And again you cant beat the price on E-bay. At this point it is way overkill for this printer but I figured I  can add some extra  features in later to make it more user friendly.

NEW VERSION! The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560 (datasheet).
It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Uno, Duemilanove or Diecimila.

So I am gonna play with these tonight and  keep you posted.

Here is a simplified electrical schematic for now.

Simplified electrical schematic.

May 4  2011

OK ,Last night I hacked the Viewsonic pro 8200,.

Because the main lens is gonna project upwards now , I thought it would be easier to turn the main motherboard back to horizontal to have easier access to the VGA socket and  keypad on the main printer enclosure case. ,and that I might also save on the vertical height of the main enclosure case. So I was gonna  re-arrange the whole configuration of all the pc boards ,keypads and sockets in the  new case.

So after about 4 hours of headscratching I came to the conclusion that I would gain absolutely nothing by doing that. In the following pictures you would see why.

Here is the reasons why:.

1-The whole unit is so compact in design that it would only take up a lot more space after I changed the motherboard and keypad direction.

2-The main motherboard is attached with (2x)  80 pin (0.25 pitch) board to board male and female connectors. 2x Extension ribbons need to be made.(no big deal but still a pain,especially at .25mm traces)

3-Here is the main reason. The best place for the main board is about right where it is now but should be turned sideways. So by turning it sideways I only would have gained 25mm in height….NOT WORTH IT!!

4-The main 2x power supply units(AC and DC) and the keypad (in the cover now) is easy to move,small  and can really go anywhere.But they are not the ones that really need to be re-configured anyway.I can live with a keypad on the side.

5- By keeping it all intack you can still retain your warranty.

6-Just a arm as an attachement bracket will make the kit more versatile and modular  to take newer and less expensive DLP’s.(or any kind for that matter.)

Thats why I came to the  conclusion ,lets keep it all like it is in its original case, and make a projector bracket with a protective window over the lens for resin spills.It will save us a ton of headaches and much less work. We just have too keep a close eye on the temperature .We might need an extra fan (or stronger) by going vertical.The only thing we will replace is the lamp with UV led array for the right wavelength spectrum.(we dont need all that wasted heat generated from the current Osram lamp) .We will probably use the same Osram lamp enclosure for the Led’s too.The other thing is ,we might do some lens correction or replacement,but hope not to.

$1000 of parts strewn all over ..Yikes!!...All stripped excepts the optic train

The optic train ( lamp not installed)

THE 80 Pin board to board connectors seen on the lens pcb.

The 2x male 80 pin board to board connectors on the underside of the main motherboard

Shown is the main motherboard turned sideways,almost the same amount of space is taken up..

Here is where it all happen,the TEXAS INSTRUMENTS Projection chip with all its millions of little mirrors

For those of you that need a little more tech info.This is the basic workings of a Digital Light Projector. White light is devided into its red, green and blue spectrum by a colorwheel/filter. The colorwheel is synchronized with the switching mirrors. The 3 colors projects sequentially onto the mirrors that switch on and off ( faster than the eye can see),then throught the main focus lens. Your eye's retina blend the 3 colors to form a full colored image as seen on the wall/screen.

A microscopic close up of the switching mirrors.There are millions of these on one chip about 20 x 20mm ,high resolution Projector chip.

An exploded view of the mirrors.

Found these two cool ,heavy guage aluminum PC Cases perfect for a projector.


Here is the main telescopic collumn.It can pull out 300mm. for enlargement.

The Z-Axis baseplate with 4x V-Groove bearings.Bolted to the horizontal build platform beam.

Th z-Axis conector block and main collumn leadscrew.

So here is what we have so far,Computer case with horizontal stabilizing legs,Main collumn with leadscrew attached to Z-Axis building platform beam, the vat platform

All the headscratching paid off,The projected image is nicely centered.A Quick glimpse of the smallest image settin This size image about 2 x 3 inches would be ideal for jewelry.


May 9   2011
Ok …Man was this a busy weekend with mothers day and all.
I did chug along good with both printers this weekend .
I think at this point I am still overbuilding a little on the collumn it is a little on the heavy side …..still. The final introductory   kit will definitly have less weight without sacrifice structural integrity. These  units are perfect  for a larger building envelope of about one cubic foot. And that was the main reason for their size now. It is for reasearch and development. they are great for that especially the fact that they are modular.

Thats it for this weekend folks ,I also played with the Arduino mega 2560 micro controller this weekend .I am slowly getting the hang of it too. I was  amazed by the ease of programming such a cool li’l microcontroller ,It is good way of cutting my teeth on C++ and C……I think it is going to work  great with this printer and projector.. Thanks to Roberto!!!!  Great choice!…so is the polulu’s…..

Just for those that might think this is cutting edge technology:…,You know the old saying “ the time you think about it someone else already have..” , Well look at this invention from 1945. Howzat?? for cutting edge technology for 1945.

Here is the link for Munz’s invention

May 16,2011

The VGA  display output discussion came up and we will definitEly try VGA , but the cool gadget man Roberto  found this USB > Hdmi adapter. Good find again ! and for only $55 (us) free shipping from .That will hopefully wil  give us a full digital 1920 x 1080 resolution wich is also the native of  the Viewsonic Pro 8200. I’ll keep you posted on the outcome of that.  I think it’s gonna work fantastic!

The USB to HDMI 1920 x 1080 resolution that we are gonna try.

Stay tuned!








May 17, 2011

Ok last we left of here:

The vat table was done ,but no vat yet


So this weekend more progress ,This was harder than I thought,Took a really long time to figure out the vat removal ,Pivots and tilt mechanism,..Still in the rough now,but I wil finish off nice when I know all is working good.

The vat with the 1/4" Stainless lifter pin at the rear







The vat and lifter assembly







The Vat channel holder ,The thumb screws are for Vat removal and cleaning. The glass bottom is just taped on for now. I am still trying to figure out how to get a good hydrophobic surface on the vat floor(to the glass).I am using pure 100% clear using silicone for now.I have a hard time to get THIN & SMOOTH . Optical aberration and refraction is my main concern at this point. I also dont know how much UV blockage we will have.The layer thickness of the silicone is probably 5 to 10 microns.I think I got it down but will keep you posted.

The vat lifter,Still in the rough, but I will finish it when I know it will work 100%


The vat pivot block assembly

The vat pivot, front view

Side view of the whole assembly completion for May17,2011

Side/rear view

The solenoid for vat tilting,Dont know how this is gonna work.The pull is smooth, but the release is too rapid .We will probably try DC Pulse width modulation for the release so it's not so rapid

The placement of the solenoid, the cam is not done yet. The solenoid will be the simplest implementation for a tilt mechanism, at least according to my hypothesys. If it is not going to be strong enough we will do a stepper motor.But that will complicate things again with limit switches etc.

So that’s it for the hardware side.The software interface is coming along great too!!…… and it will blow you mind if you see what we have installed for you in the Software user interface,….It is so cool, and  it will also be open sourced !.
May 17 ,2011
Here is a very, very cool animation done by our software branch in Canada by programming and animation expert ,  Roberto.  Well done  Roberto!  and a great way of  illustrating the blade opto  limitswitch slowdown which is also software control by our interface. Here is the reason for the opto slowdown switch:
The build platform travel at rapid speed ( to save time )  from the top all the way down ( 250mm)  until it triggers the opto slow-down switch .The software now slows it down for the rest of the way to the vat floor(50mm).This slowdown period is so we don’t  “splat” the building platform into  the resin with high speed and spill it all over the sides of the vat . Take a close look at the video.
Also as long been promised, here is a sneek preview of our well designed software interface (opensourced  soon ) . Even at this beta developmental  stage you can see it is going to be a winner!!!!….loose  hands!!!!….. Great job!….. And of course Roberto gets 100% credit for our software interface development.

Sneek Preview screencaptur of our software interface in beta right now.


Our software is all being done in python script language.

We are using skeinforge as the main slicer engine and standard REPRAP GCode to control the electronics. We will be adding some custom GCode commands to control some aspects of the projector, like turning it on/off and switch input lines.
The electronics are also largely based on the REPRAP RAMPS 1.2 board (essentially using an Arduino Mega and a Pololu driver), and uses a standard RAMPS firmware.
We are currently using the Sprinter ramps firmware (old carukilp firmware), which has being re-written from the ground up especially to take advantage of the pololu driver capability. This new ramps firmware also allows much faster axis movement with much less noise than any other reprap firmware available.
The UI is all done in QT, a well known and very reliable multi-platform UI library developed by Nokia.
OpenGL is also used for the realtime preview of the model to be printed, and also during the print itself, since OpenGL is extremely efficient to deal with double-buffered page flipping and Vertical Synchronization, minimizing possible glitches in the curing process during slice switch.
One of the main goals of the software is to be multi-platform from day one, hence the choices of using OpenGL, Python and QT. It’s being constantly tested on OSX, Windows and Linux, as it’s being developed and, so far, no big issues!

We’re are working really hard for the  D.I.Y  printer  community! . And we are really excited to finally produce  a MUCH ANTICIPATED  100% OPEN   SOURCE high-Resolution 3D printer to the community!

We can GUARANTEE, with a 100% certainty that this project will keep going open source from beginning  to ever! All our files will be hosted as a google-code project any day now, which essentially guarantees that they will stay online, open source to everyone no matter what! (after its being published, we can’t remove anything from google code!)

We strongly believe in open source as a way of  life, and  money earnings  on this project is more   a consequence for us than an actual goal!!!! . Remember our main GOAL and MOTTO  for this project  !, “Make this printer 100% available  to everyone  !!.  In doing so, we are working  really   to bring this project  to  a reality.!!

May 19. 2011

Got the 24 VDC 4.5 A , switching power supplies  in today from China (E-Bay…stoneined2009  ) , they look great and will work very good

24VDC, 4.5A Power supplies from China-...e-bay


Stay tuned a lot more coming every day!!! …TJ.


May 20, 2011

A Really Nice Resource about UV cure
(by Hradec – may 19th) of information there to learn a bit more about UV curing materials, techniques and more…Also, find this really nice supplier of UV adhesives in Canada (yeah… I’m in Canada), which is really hard to find:

They have a really nice search system, were you can refine the list by selecting  different aspects of the material, like viscosity, cure time, etc. Unfortunately, theres no prices whatsoever… everything has to be quoted! =(


A little bit about UV Curable resins…
(by Hradec – may 19th)

I was looking for ways to mix UV blockers into epoxy resin (to mix an UV blocker into the solarez zerovoc – the cheapest UV resin I found so far), and I found this:

Nothing new here… an adhesive from Dymax that cures fast on UV and blue light… but what catch my eye was the second page… the 2 graphs showing the depth of cure relation with time of exposition and light intensity… And then I realize:

If this product has a depth/exposion time relation, it means that it already partially blocks the light from penetrating deep into the material, which means that we MAY be able to control the cure by just adjusting the exposure time per layer… If we do the math right, we may be able to cure JUST the amount we want from the bottom, by doing really quick expositions, specially if the material is NOT SO FAST to cure… actually, the slower it is, the more difficult it would be to cure a ticker layer… which is EXACTLY what we want! 🙂
Also, we could experiment with adding SOLVENT to the mix instead of a blocker, just to make it HARDER to form the reaction that cures the material, increasing the chances of curing just a tiny layer…
just some more to think about it and experiment once we get a prototype working!
Also, in case someone runs into figuring what viscosity “cP” is, this is a nice useful table to figure how viscous a material is:
Some typical viscosities (cP at 20°C)
air 0.02 motor oil SAE 20 125
acetone 0.3 motor oil SAE 50 540
methanol 0.6 castor oil 986
water 1.0 glycerin 1490
ethanol 1.2 pancake syrup 2500
mercury 1.5 maple syrup 3200
linseed oil (raw) 28 treacle 20,000
corn oil 72 peanut butter 250,000
olive oil 84 window putty 100,000,000


Latest version of the host software, running on windows and moving the axis stepper in “live” mode.
(by Hradec – May 20th – 4:20am) made this video to show everyone the development evolution. The host software now detects the available serial port devices, list it on the combo box. Select the right one and hit “connect”. It connects successfully to the Sprinter firmware running on the arduino.


From there, the host software just need to send GCode over the serial device and that’s it!
Now I’ll work on the homing procedure, the refill procedure and next, I’ll “glue” skeinforge into it to slice an object. The print procedure is also done, but in a separate script. I’ll try to “copy and paste” in the host software so I can record a small preview of a “print” simulation! **************************************************************************************

 May 25 ,2011

The opto and limit switches is done and almost installed.It always surprizes me how long it takes to design the simple things in life,its easy to design complicated stuff, but simplicity takes some headscratching.And so it was with the opto switches. When you look at it you would never think it took days of headscratching to make it simple.




171 Responses to SNYGRO… a 3D Rapid prototype printing

  1. John says:

    What if you mount the projector horizontally and use a 45 deg mirror to direct the image up into the tank? That way the lens isn’t in danger of resin spills and the overall height of the printer is reduced. Also, you could easilly change the setup for a larger (lower resolution) build envelope by moving the projector farther away from the mirror without having to make any changes to your Z axis, other than maybe replacing the resin tank with a larger one. With a scalable setup the same printer could be made to print small very high resolution prints or larger (although slower) lower resolution prints. What do you think?

  2. John says:

    Sorry, somehow I missed the part about the modular design that allowed the z axis to be adjusted. I do think that a horizontal placement might have the advantage of a more ridgid z axis construction as well as the reduced vertical height and protection from resin drips.

  3. TJ says:

    Hi john tnx for the response
    Yes I actually have considered that too, 45 Degree mirrors, I have been trying to keep things really simple,but last night I was playing with the focal point a little more.In order for me build a about a 100 x 200mm footprint my focal distance is 260mm from my lens.
    So I hate to move the platform up so high.So without correction lenses I might be forced to do that. The main construction on the collumns is almost done .Then I will have a much better feel the height and weight of the whole printer.

    The main advantage of the printer flat with a mirror is 2 things:
    1-The projection is closer to the collumn,Because now the long side is from side to side.
    2- The printer is easy to cover now from resin spills.
    3- It makes it much more versatile ,almost any printer can now to to be used.

  4. John says:

    TJ, You are a brave man! I don’t think I’d have the guts to break down a brand new $1000 projector. I totally agree with the KISS philosophy. The less complex the better. As for the vertical vs horizontal I guess it really depends on which is more important, a small footprint or not being too tall. I did have annother thought but it goes against the KISS principle. You could mount the projector vertically behind the main collumn and use 2 45 deg mirrors to direct the beam over and up. that would increase your focal distance and keep both a small footprint and shorter height. It might even be small enough to be considered a desktop device. You would have to go back to the 2 collumn design so the beam could pass under the center of the z axis. On the plus side, you could adjust the projection distance without realy changing the overall size of the printer.

    A while back I started a powder based inkjet 3d printer project but could never get the ink carts to work well. (The old lexmark I used had crappy carts to begin with) Now I’m thinking of scrapping the project and using the parts for a DLP printer. MUCH less complex with fewer moving parts. And the best part is the higher resolution hard resin output (not plaster).

    I’m looking forward to exchanging ideas with a fellow tinkerer.


    • tj says:

      Exactly right, we try and produce this concept in kitform to anyone thats interested .Like you said “k.i.s.s.”, keep it simple and sequential and or sweet!” , Our goal is to keep it simple, highly functionable and easy to put together in sequential order for all to understand . We are truly not holding anything back,its all opensourced for everyone to use and enjoy.
      All we ask in return is that we all share and contribute our improvements and better our ideas to further this project for the whole community.
      I also liked what you said …”I’m looking forward to exchanging ideas with a fellow tinkerer…..”, So true

      Not sharing ideas is selfish, and it never edifies mankind (and our products).

  5. Murinata says:

    Very cool project.
    I was looking for the CAD drawing but can’t find it anywhere on the page.
    Well, thank anyway.

  6. Mark says:

    You might be interested in this – it’s aluminium extrusion with built in V groove bearing runners.

    • tj says:

      Thank you for that link, I checked it out, It is extremely well made and might work well.I like the ofset bolts that comes with the bearings and the delrin pulleys wont wear the aluminum.

  7. Jon Watson says:

    Hi T.J. Well I’m sure you’ve heard about the Junior Veloso printer project. I have been following his blog for a couple weeks and someone finally put your link on his blog and I’m glad they did. This is what I’ve been looking for. Ideas, pics and build progress from someone who likes to share! I am going to attempt to build this type of printer myself, I don’t need to wait until someone has a kit. I built my own CNC router and this will even be easier I think. I just got here to your forum so I haven’t read through it yet but I am excited. I think I would rather try out a cheaper DLP projector to start. There are some available for around $400 and about 2500 – 2700 lumens. That should be enough to cure the resin you think? Have you researched this yet? Like I said, I just got here so maybe you have answered that question somewhere above. I like your approach to using 8020 aluminum for your structure, that’s what I used for my router and it’s great stuff for do-it-yourselfers. Great job & great blog. I will be following this one from now on. Thanks,

  8. Jon Watson says:

    TJ. I did the same research that you did on the chemicals. I found those lab experiment web pages and discovered the 3 chemicals needed. The KEY to calibrating the resin to the printer is the Sudan I, This is what controls the depth of curing. It sounds tricky and there will be a lot of trial & error in coming up with the proper amount of the Sudan I to get optimal cure depth. If you want .005 layer thickness, for example, you will need to experiment with how much Sudan I to mix into the resin. Too much, and the layers would be too thin and might not attach to the previous layers and to little, will cause deeper penetration and overlap which might not be good, especially for overhang areas. So I think the most critical adjustments and the most trial & error will go into the correct formula to get the right layer thickness. Another adjustment that will take time to dial in would be the focal length of the projector and the distance from the DLP to the built platform. This is going to be tedious, especially if you desire 1:1 scale parts. This also depends on how large the image appears on screen. You will get better XY resolution the bigger (pixel size) the slice is being projected. Many factors involved here. Plus, the fewer pieces that have to be introduced, (i.e. 45deg mirror or magnifying glass (to reduce the image) the better. In agreement on the K.I.S.S. principle. Just thinking out loud here. still doing lots of research. 😀

  9. tj says:

    Thx for checking us out. I have started this poroject a long, long time ago probably before Veloso . Mine just hasn’t progressed so fast, at least up to now . I met a great partner that has just as much zeal for this project than I do, he handles the software side and is one of the very best. Now as a team we are moving at rapid speed ahead. I am running my bussiness in Florida and also attend to this project (so does both us) ,we are all busy ,and that would even be more reason to share ideas. All our links and research are documented here . If you want to try out different modules and electronics, great! thats what its all about ! Research and Development!! We aim to keep it all open .Many people dont have the means, tools and time to tinker and test (or the patience . For those we will have a ready to assemble kits bundled with the software. ready to go , all you have to do is mount the projector in the case and hook it up to your PC, Finally once we have the right projector sorted out ,we will have a complete kit unassembled and assembled ready to go. What makes our system great is that its modular /adjustable and will fit many many type of projectors.

    We don’t have any final pricing on any of the kits yet.

    • tj says:

      Jon also post this yesterday but somhow did not make it our blog:
      Jon said:
      “I did the same research that you did on the chemicals. I found those
      lab experiment web pages and discovered the 3 chemicals needed. The KEY
      to calibrating the resin to the printer is the Sudan I, This is what
      controls the depth of curing. It sounds tricky and there will be a lot
      of trial & error in coming up with the proper amount of the Sudan I to
      get optimal cure depth. If you want .005 layer thickness, for example,
      you will need to experiment with how much Sudan I to mix into the resin.
      Too much, and the layers would be too thin and might not attach to the
      previous layers and to little, will cause deeper penetration and overlap
      which might not be good, especially for overhang areas. So I think the
      most critical adjustments and the most trial & error will go into the
      correct formula to get the right layer thickness. Another adjustment
      that will take time to dial in would be the focal length of the
      projector and the distance from the DLP to the built platform. This is
      going to be tedious, especially if you desire 1:1 scale parts. This also
      depends on how large the image appears on screen. You will get better XY
      resolution the bigger (pixel size) the slice is being projected. Many
      factors involved here. Plus, the fewer pieces that have to be
      introduced, (i.e. 45deg mirror or magnifying glass (to reduce the image)
      the better. In agreement on the K.I.S.S. principle. Just thinking out
      loud here. still doing lots of research.”
      Jon there is many configurations we can do with mirrors,They all work great until they scratch and and have to be aligned then it becomes very time consuming and expensive.For now we will try and to do without them.

  10. John says:

    Lookin’ good! I’m really excited about the software. Both you and Junior have inspired me to green light my own printer project. While I’m confident I can handle the mechanical stuff there are a few areas that I still need to research. I would like to find software (that doesn’t cost a fortune) to automatically create support structures. I have an STL slicer and I’m learning how to write a VB program to display the bitmaps with all the apropriate timings. It shure would be nice however if there was 1 piece of software that did it all instead of doing it piecemeal. BTW, how well is the silicon working for the non stick coating? I thought about trying one of the water clear silicons from If thinned so that the viscosity was low enough it might be self leveling. Or maybe it could be sprayed (airbrushed) in a very thin coating. Junior tried different glass’ and quartz with teflon and other coatings. I don’t know what he ended up with. Hopefuly the silicone will work as it is probobly the least expensive. For the tray tilt I think I’m going to use a stepper with an eccentric to press down on the edge of the tray. I’m thinking 3/16″ to 1/4″ deflection should be enough? The idea is just to seporate the cured resin from the glass right? The vacuum created should fill the gap with more resin.
    You can see my progress at
    I’ve started gathering materials and should start consruction this weekend.

    Thanks again for the information and inspiration,


  11. jim says:

    Please ignore my ignorance here but would it be possible to use a DIY projector like those that are made with a LCD panel with a backlight shining through, then using a focusing lens? or even with one of these

    • hradec says:

      In theory yeah… the unaswered question is how much a standard LCD will occlude the UV light, and if it will be enough.
      the beauty of DLP is that its based on micro-mirrors. So when a pixel is OFF, the micro-mirror of that pixel is rotated away from the light source, and basically theres NO LIGHT WHATSOEVER coming through.

      LCDs are different. They work on BLOCKING the light instead. If you have a LCD/LED TV, specially an old one, you’ll notice that, when the screen is black, the black is not 100%… its always SLIGHTLY grey. (newer tvs block more light, so blacks are darker).

      Also, LCD are designed in layers, filtering out just RED, GREEN and BLUE, so they can switch each RGB independently, combining then to form all colors. In theory, Red and Green should block UV light, since UV is right before BLUE in the specter. So, the only pixels that have a chance to allow UV to come true are the BLUE layer.

      BUT, TVs and monitors are designed to NOT emit UV, so theres a huge chance that they all have UV blockers, in case the backlight emits some. Unless we can REMOVE the UV filter so we could put a UV light behind the LCD, it should not work.

      If you give it a try, please let us known how it goes!

      here is a link to some experiments the guys of the RepRap comunity are doing with UV and LCD:

  12. tj says:

    antonzedd,..Welcome aboard please tell us a little about youself ,,and how you got interested in this.its great to have you!

  13. Nuri Erginer says:

    I like your printer a lot but I have a question regarding the solenoid. When you tilt the vat with the solenoid how you will sure that the design will be removed from the bottom instead of from the top. I mean you will have a solid resin glued between the top and the bottom (build platform and polymerization tray) when you tilt the tray it may detach from the top that you do not want.

    Nuri Erginer

    • tj says:

      Nuri,when you read close you will see that that the stage is hydrophillic (stick to),and the inside floor of the vat is hydrophobic (repel resin) So while the resin cures it stick to the top more aggresively…when you pry the two surfaces apart , it release on the bottom.

  14. Nuri Erginer says:

    What are the materials for the vat and the stage?

  15. tj says:

    Glass on top,Silicone rubber on the bottom

  16. antonzedd says:

    Seems the hardware is almost there, just needs a little modularization to keep things “a la”;paint by numbers simple. Maybe we should all collaborate on a sketchup model of the hardware until it is template-able like the reprap project. Just an idea:)

  17. tj says:

    That is exactly what I am steering towards, If you want , you can start and compare some Aluminum prices for us from .. T-slot Alum . profile companies Look at our pictures and try to get something as close as possible. These profiles were once used by a CNC company called SIMPLIMATIC.

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